Yoga (Sanskrit,pali, yoga) is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India,whose goal is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility.The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
The word yoga is used to refer to one of the six orthodox (Ashtika) schools of Hindu philosophy. Yoga in this sense is based on the Yoga sutras of Patanjali.
Patanjali’s system is discussed and elaborated upon in many classical Hindu texts, and has also been influential in Buddhism and Jainism. The Bhagvadgita, introduces distinctions such as Jnana yoga (“yoga based on knowledge”) vs. Karma yoga (“yoga based on action”).
Other systems of philosophy introduced in Hinduism during the medieval period are Bhakti yoga, and Hatha yoga.
The Sanskrit word Yoga has the literal meaning of “yoke”, from a root yuj meaning to join, to unite, or to attach. As a term for a system of abstract meditation or mental abstraction it was introduced by Patanjali, in the 2nd century BC. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini.
The goals of yoga are varied and range from improving health to achieving Moksha.
But we will not talk about Moksha here, now..